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Friday, March 27, 2015
“Leave all previous instructions and experiences outside the Chan Hall” with these words the Retreat Master, Venerable Chang Hui, encouraged the retreatants to come to the retreat with a fresh and open mind uncluttered by what we have heard or experienced before. I began the 7-day retreat with the mind of a newly born baby, at least I tried to do so. This will be my fourth Huatou retreat and I was looking forward to enhance my practice, which often felt a bit disorganized. Sometimes I yearned for the simplicity and linear approach of observing one’s breath. But I was determined to stay with Huatou despite my difficulties.
Regulating the body by walking consists of slow walking and fast walking. Walking meditation is especially useful for a change of pace when engaged in prolonged sitting, such as on personal or group retreats. Periods of walking can be taken between sittings.
On January 24, 2015, an event was held at Dharma Drum Mountain Vancouver Center on the theme of “Returning Home”.
To regulate the body by sitting, one should observe the Vairocana Seven-Points of Sitting(毘盧遮那七支坐法). This refers to the seven rules of correct sitting posture. Each of these criteria has been used unchanged since ancient days.
As we saw above, tso-ch'an was practiced in China long before the appearance of Ch'an. The earlier masters practiced according to methods in the Hinayana sutras, which emphasized the techniques collectively known as samatha-vipasyana. Generally speaking, these were methods for achieving samadhi through three aspects: regulating one's body, regulating one's breathing, and regulating one's mind.
When pre-Ch'an masters practiced, they mostly used the methods given in the translated Hinayana sutras. For them, tso-ch'an referred to methods of sitting to attain samadhi. But among the later masters of Ch'an, the term was reserved for methods of attaining enlightenment without samadhi as an intermediate or final stage.
In most spiritual traditions of India, the yogis practice dhyana to attain samadhi at its various levels. After years of austere practice as a yogi, the self-exiled Indian prince Siddhartha recognized that his realization was incomplete. He sat under the bodhi tree vowing not to rise until he had resolved the question of death and rebirth. Only when he became enlightened one evening, after seeing a bright star, did he rise. He had become the Buddha, the primal transmitter of Buddhism in our epoch. The Buddha's experience became the paradigm of tso-ch'an practice.
The references above show that several centuries before the coming of the Ch'an school, tso-ch'an already reached a high state of development in China, both as a practice and a scriptural topic. These references also show the close association between tso-ch'an and samadhi in Chinese Buddhist practice prior to Ch'an.
The Chinese term tso-ch'an 坐禪(zazen) was in use among Buddhist practitioners even before the appearance of the Ch'an (Zen) School. Embedded in the term is the word ch'an, a derivative of the Indian dhyana, which is the yogic practice of attaining samadhi in meditation. Literally translated, tso-ch'an means "sitting ch'an" and has a comprehensive and a specific meaning. The comprehensive meaning refers to any type of meditation practice based on taking the sitting posture. The specific meaning refers to the methods of practice that characterize Ch'an Buddhism.
The Heart Sutra teaches that suffering comes from ignorance, attachment to self, and confusion caused by afflictions; it also teaches us how to live with purpose, to ultimately fulfill the four great vows and to cultivate a non-abiding mind. But we are stubborn and refuse to give up our afflictions easily, for ignorance and self-attachment are at the roots our perceived existence. Nevertheless, it is through our will and our vows, the wellsprings of action, that we arouse the bodhi-mind , and begin the process of enlightenment. This willingness is crucial, because it is not easy to change our old ways, however destructive or comforting they may be. But the choice, as always, is ours. By following the bodhisattva path to its end, we will ultimately exhaust all ignorance, cross the ocean of suffering, and reach anuttara-samyak-sambodhi. This is the far-reaching and profound message of the Heart Sutra.
Of the contemplations of the sense faculties, that of the mind itself is the most difficult. Buddhadharma analyzes the mind into its individual components to better understand its nature and workings, but all the components function together in a seamless, ever-changing continuum. The major components are the six consciousnesses (vijnanas), the faculty of mind (mana) and its objects (dhatus), and base-consciousness (citta).